090.TheStrifeIsOer

Please turn to number 90 and join with the clarinets in “The Strife is O’er”.

Number: 90
First Line: The Strife is O’er
Name: VICTORY.
Meter: 8 8 8. With Alleluias.
Tempo: Broadly, with dignity
Music: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrini, 1525-94
Adapted by William Henry Monk, 1823-89
Alleluias by William Henry Monk, 1823-89
Text: Latin, XVII cent.
Tr. Francis Pott, 1832-1909

Clarinet Arrangement: 090-TheStrifeIsOer

Wow, William Henry Monk gets a special credit just for his “Alleluias” on this tune!

We’ve finished up with the delightfully minor hymns of Good Friday and are now moving on to Easter. Alleluias will abound.

Palestrina, on the other hand, was a very important composer of the Italian Renaissance.

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525 – February 1594)[1] was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.[2] He had a lasting influence on the development of church music, and his work has often been seen as the culmination of Renaissance polyphony.[2]

One of the hallmarks of Palestrina’s music is that dissonances are typically relegated to the “weak” beats in a measure.[9] This produced a smoother and more consonant type of polyphony which is now considered to be definitive of late Renaissance music, given Palestrina’s position as Europe’s leading composer (along with Orlande de Lassus) in the wake of Josquin des Prez (d. 1521). The “Palestrina style” now serves as a basis for college Renaissance counterpoint classes, thanks in large part to the efforts of the 18th-century composer and theorist Johann Joseph Fux, who, in a book called Gradus ad Parnassum (Steps to Parnassus, 1725), set about codifying Palestrina’s techniques as a pedagogical tool for students of composition. Fux applied the term “species counterpoint“, which entails a series of steps whereby students work out progressively more elaborate combinations of voices while adhering to certain strict rules. Fux did make a number of stylistic errors, however, which have been corrected by later authors (notably Knud Jeppesen and Morris). Palestrina’s own music contains ample instances in which his rules have been followed to the letter, as well as many where they are freely broken.

According to Fux, Palestrina had established and followed these basic guidelines:

  • The flow of music is dynamic, not rigid or static.
  • Melody should contain few leaps between notes. (Jeppesen: “The line is the starting point of Palestrina’s style.”)[9]
  • If a leap occurs, it must be small and immediately countered by stepwise motion in the opposite direction.
  • Dissonances are to be confined to passing notes and weak beats. If one falls on a strong beat, it is to be immediately resolved.
Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

088a.OSacredHead

Please turn to number 88 (First Tune) and join with the clarinets in “O Sacred Head”. It is also permissible to sing Paul Simon’s “American Tune”.

Number: 88 (First Tune)
First Line: O Sacred Head, Now Wounded
Name: PASSION CHORALE.
Meter: 7 6, 7 6. D.
Tempo: With devotion
Music: Hans Leo Hassler, 1564-1612
Text: Ascribed to St. Bernard of Clairvaux, 1091-1153
Paul Gerhardt, 1607-76
Tr. James Waddel Alexander, 1804-59 a.

Clarinet Arrangement: 088a.OSacredHead

I was practicing this and my wife said, “Are you learning Paul Simon’s ‘American Tune’ as a Valentine’s Day Surprise?”

I said, “Funny you mention that. I was just reading how Paul Simon used ‘O Sacred Head’s’ tune for his song, ‘American Tune’!”

This hymn is well enough known that it has its very own entry in wikipedia: O Sacred Head, Now Wounded

Original Latin

Further information: Membra Jesu Nostri

The hymn is based on a long medieval Latin poem, Salve mundi salutare,[1] with stanzas addressing the various parts of Christ‘s body hanging on the Cross. The last part of the poem, from which the hymn is taken, is addressed to Christ’s head, and begins “Salve caput cruentatum.” The poem is often attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153), but is now attributed to the Medieval poet Arnulf of Leuven (died 1250). The seven cantos were used for the text of Dieterich Buxtehude‘s Membra Jesu Nostri addressing the various members of the crucified body.

German translation

The poem was translated into German by the Lutheran hymnist Paul Gerhardt (1607–1676). He reworked the Latin version to suggest a more personal contemplation of the events of Christ’s death on the cross.[2] It first appeared in Johann Crüger‘s hymnal Praxis pietatis melica in 1656. Although Gerhardt translated the whole poem, it is the closing section which has become best known, and is sung as a hymn in its own right. The German hymn begins with “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden”.

English translation

The hymn was first translated into English in 1752 by John Gambold (1711–1771), an Anglican vicar in Oxfordshire. His translation begins, “O Head so full of bruises.” In 1830 a new translation of the hymn was made by an American Presbyterian minister, James Waddel Alexander (1804-1859). Alexander’s translation, beginning “O sacred head, now wounded,” became one of the most widely used in 19th and 20th century hymnals.

The music for the German and English versions of the hymn is by Hans Leo Hassler, written around 1600 for a secular love song, “Mein G’müt ist mir verwirret“, which first appeared in print in the 1601 Lustgarten Neuer Teutscher Gesäng. The tune was appropriated and rhythmically simplified for Gerhardt’s German hymn in 1656 by Johann Crüger. Johann Sebastian Bach arranged the melody and used five stanzas of the hymn in the St Matthew Passion. He also used the hymn’s text and melody in the second movement of the cantataSehet, wir gehn hinauf gen Jerusalem, BWV 159.[4] Bach used the melody on different words in his Christmas Oratorio, in the first part (no. 5). Franz Liszt included an arrangement of this hymn in the sixth station, Saint Veronica, of his Via Crucis (the Way of the Cross), S. 504a. The Danish composer Rued Langgaard composed a set of variations for string quartet on this tune. It is also employed in the final chorus of “Sinfonia Sacra”, the 9th symphony of the English composer Edmund Rubbra.

The melody of “American Tune” by Paul Simon is based on the hymn.

Peter, Paul & Mary and the Dave Brubeck Trio performed “Because all men are brothers” on their album “Summit Sessions”.

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

087.ODarkestWoe

Please turn to number 87 and join with the clarinets in, “O Darkest Woe”.

Number: 87
First Line: O Darkest Woe
Name: O TRAURIGKEIT.
Meter: 4 4, 7 7, 6.
Tempo: Tenderly
Music: Mainz, 1628
Text: St. 1, anonymous
St. 2-4, Johann Rist, 1607-67
Tr. Catherine Winkworth, 1829-78

Clarinet Arrangement: 087-ODarkestWoe

Another gloomy, minor hymn. Just the sort of thing I enjoy.

O DARKEST WOE Words: Verse 1 from the Cath­o­lic Würz­burg Ge­sang­buch, 1628; vers­es 2-4, Jo­hann Rist, Himm­lische Lied­er (Lün­e­burg, Ger­ma­ny: 1641) (O Trau­rig­keit, o Herz­e­leid). Trans­lat­ed from Ger­man to Eng­lish by Cath­er­ine Wink­worth, Chor­ale Book for Eng­land, 1863. Rist wrote:

The first verse of this fun­er­al hymn, along with its de­vo­tion­al mel­o­dy, came ac­ci­dent­al­ly in­to my hands. As I was great­ly pleased with it, I add­ed the other sev­en as they stand, since I could not be a par­ty to the use of the other vers­es.

Music: O Trau­rig­keit, com­pos­er un­known (Mainz, Ger­ma­ny: 1628)

O darkest woe! Ye tears, forth flow!
Has earth so sad a wonder?
God the Father’s only Son
Now lies buried yonder.

O sorrow dread!
God’s Son is dead!
But by His expiation
Of our guilt upon the cross
Gained for us salvation.

O sinful man, it was the ban
Of death on thee that brought Him
Down to suffer for thy sins,
And such woe hath wrought Him.

Behold thy Lord, the Lamb of God
Blood sprinkled lies before thee,
Pouring out His life that He
May to life restore thee.

O Ground of faith,
Laid low in death,
Sweet lips, now silent sleeping!
Surely all that live must mourn
Here with bitter weeping.

O blest shall be
Eternally
Who oft in faith will ponder
Why the glorious Prince of Life
Should be buried yonder.

O Jesus blest, my Help and Rest!
With tears I pray, Lord hear me,
Make me love Thee to the last,
And in death be near me.

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

086.OComeAndMournWithMe

Please turn to number 86 and join with the clarinets in “O Come and Mourn with Me”.

Number: 86
First Line: O Come and Mourn With Me
Name: ST. CROSS
Meter: L.M.
Tempo: Slowly
Music: John Bacchus Dykes, 1823-76
Text: Frederick William Faber, 1814-63

Clarinet Arrangement: 086-OComeAndMournWithMe

I really like this hymn.

However, regarding Mr Dykes, while popular in Victorian times, his tunes fell out of favor in the 20th Century.

Whereas the proliferation of Dykes’s tunes in hymnals published throughout the nineteenth century, together with some surviving correspondence by hymnal compilers and by clergymen, in the UK and overseas (including the US and Nyasaland (now Malawi)), show that his compositions were highly regarded, the end of his century brought a widespread reaction against much of the Victorian aesthetic, and Dykes’s music did not escape a censure which was often vituperative. In particular, his music was condemned for its alleged over-chromaticism (even though some 92% of his hymn tunes are either entirely, or almost entirely diatonic) [34] and for its imputed sentimentality. (Speaking of Victorian hymn-tunes generally, but evidently with Dykes in his sights [35] Vaughan Williams wrote of ‘the miasma of the languishing and sentimental hymn tunes which so often disfigure our services’ [36]) Whereas it is indeed reasonable to characterise his music as often being sentimental, his critics never paused to explain why nineteenth century church services, which were replete with sentimental imagery, prose and choreography, should not be accompanied by music of a like kind. Nor did they explain why sentimentality per se is a bad thing, nor why music invariably improves in inverse proportion to its sentimental content. As one writer put it, in a wider consideration of the subject: “Something is wrong with sentimentality: the only question is, What is it?” [37] As for Dykes’s harmonies generally (of which the twentieth century writers Erik Routley and Kenneth Long were outspoken in their disparagement), scholars in recent years have questioned the twentieth century orthodoxy which condemned Dykes’s music out of hand, with Professors Arthur Hutchings, Nicholas Temperley and (especially) Jeremy Dibble seeing the importance of Dykes’s pioneering work in moving hymn-tunes from the bland and four-square long metre tunes which had been the staple of Tate and Brady’s New Version of the Psalms.

And regarding the author of this hymn, which is nothing if not sentimental…

Frederick William Faber was born in 1814 at Calverley, then within the Parish of Calverley in the West Riding of Yorkshire,[1] where his grandfather, Thomas Faber, was the vicar. His father served the local bishop of the Church of England as his secretary.[2]

Faber attended grammar school at Bishop Auckland in County Durham for a short time, but a large portion of his boyhood was spent in Westmorland. He afterwards attended the Harrow School for five years, followed by enrollment in 1832 at Balliol College at the University of Oxford. In 1834, he obtained a scholarship at the University College, from which he graduated. In 1836 he won the Newdigate Prize for a poem on “The Knights of St John,” which elicited special praise from John Keble. Among his college friends were Arthur Penrhyn Stanley and Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selborne. After graduation he was elected a fellow of the college.

Faber’s family was of Huguenot descent, and Calvinist beliefs were strongly held by them. When Faber had come to Oxford, he was exposed to the Anglo-Catholic preaching of the Oxford Movement which was beginning to develop in the Church of England. One of its most prominent proponents was the popular preacher John Henry Newman, vicar of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin. Faber struggled with these divergent forms of Christian beliefs and life. In order to relieve his tension, he would take long vacations in the Lake District, where he would write poetry. There he was befriended by another poet, William Wordsworth. He finally abandoned the Calvinistic views of his youth and became an enthusiastic follower of Newman.[2][3]

O come and mourn with me awhile; O come ye to the Savior’s side; O come, together let us mourn: Jesus, our Lord, is crucified.

Have we no tears to shed for him, While soldiers scoff and foes deride? Ah! Look how patiently he hangs: Jesus, our Lord, is crucified.

Seven times he spake, seven words of love; And all three hours his silence cried For mercy on the souls of men: Jesus, our Lord, is crucified.

O love of God, O sin of man! In this dread act your strength is tried, And victory remains with love: For he, our Love, is crucified!

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

083.BeholdTheLambOfGod

Please turn to number 83 and join with the clarinets in “Behold the Lamb of God”.

Number: 83
First Line: Behold the Lamb of God
Name: WIGAN
Meter: 6 6 6 4, 8 8 4
Tempo: Devotionally
Music: Samuel Sebastian Wesley, 1810-76
Text: Matthew Bridges, 1800-94 a.

Clarinet Arrangement: 083.BeholdTheLambOfGod

This is the first hymn in celebration (if that is the appropriate word) of Good Friday. Supposedly the day Jesus Christ was crucified.

The lyrics are not particularly amazing, but the tune is pretty cool. I always like a minor hymn.

This hymn is a bit challenging for Hymprovisation as it’s kind of hard to exactly tell what the keys should be. It starts in G minor, modulates to G major for a bit, then to (maybe) d major, back to d minor, and finishes in d major. All within the space of 15 measures.

However, you can mostly play in G minor for the whole thing, if you are a bit careful.

Samuel Sebastian Wesley (14 August 1810 – 19 April 1876) was an English organist and composer.

Born in London, he was the eldest child in the composer Samuel Wesley‘s second family, which he formed with Sarah Suter having separated from his wife Charlotte.[1] Samuel Sebastian was the grandson of Charles Wesley. His middle name derived from his father’s lifelong admiration for the music of Bach.

Famous in his lifetime as one of his country’s leading organists and choirmasters, he composed almost exclusively for the Church of England, which continues to cherish his memory.

One notable feature of his career is his aversion to equal temperament, an aversion which he kept for decades after this tuning method had been accepted on the Continent and even in most of England. Such distaste did not stop him from substantial use of chromaticism in several of his published compositions.

While at Winchester Cathedral Wesley was largely responsible for the Cathedral’s acquisition in 1854 of the Father Willis organ which had been exhibited at The Great Exhibition, 1851. The success of the Exhibition organ led directly to the award of the contract to Willis for a 100-stop organ for St George’s Hall, Liverpool built in 1855. Wesley was the consultant for this major and important project, but the organ was, arguably, impaired for some years by Wesley’s insistence that it was initially tuned to unequal temperament.

Wesley, with Father Willis, can be credited with the invention of the concave and radiating organ pedalboard, but demurred when Willis proposed that it should be known as the “Wesley-Willis” pedalboard. However, their joint conception has been largely adopted as an international standard for organs throughout the English-speaking world and those exported elsewhere.

080.DeepWereHisWounds

Please turn to number 80 and join with the clarinets in “Deep Were His Wounds”.

Number: 80
First Line: Deep Were His Wounds
Name: MARLEE.
Meter: 66, 66, 88.
Tempo: Unison. Devotionally with movement
Music: Leland B. Sateren, 1913-
Text: William Johnson, 1906-

Clarinet Arrangement: 080.DeepWereHis_Wounds

Well, this is very definitely an American Lutheran Hymn, as its composer just died in 2007.

Sateren, Leland B. 94, Edina, died Saturday, Nov. 10, 2007. Sateren, a renowned composer and conductor, served as chairman of the Augsburg College Department of Music from 1950 to 1973, and as director of the Augsburg Choir from 1950 until his retirement in 1979. Survived by devoted wife, Pauline; sons, Terry, Mark (Judi), Roald (Shelley); daughter, Kirsten Bergherr (Jon); and grandchildren, Stacy Lindholm (Pete), Anne Sateren Burow (Matt), Ben Bergherr, Sara Bergherr, Erik Sateren, and Anders Sateren. Sateren is also survived by sisters, Margaret Trautwein, Norma (Ray) Anderson, Sylvia (Dean) Elness; and brother, Donald Sateren. The family would like to thank the staff at Redeemer Residence in Minneapolis for their concern and care. Memorial service at 11 am Saturday, Nov. 17 at the Augsburg College Foss Chapel. Visitation will be from 9:30-10:30 am. Memorials preferred to the Leland B. Sateren Choral Scholarship Fund at Augsburg.

The hymn itself appears to be popular in Evangelical Lutheran circles, but not much outside of those, even though it is a pretty neat melody and arrangement.

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

079.ChristTheLifeOfAllTheLiving

Please turn to number 79 and join with the Clarinets in “Christ, The Life of All the Living.

Number: 79
First Line: Christ, the Life of all the Living
Name: JESU, MEINES LEBENS LEBEN.
Meter: 8 7, 8 7, 7 7, 7 7.
Tempo: With dignity and movement
Music: Darmstadt Gesangbuch, 1687
Text: Ernst Christoph Homburg, 1605-81
Tr. Catherine Winkworth, 1829-78 a.

Clarinet Arrangement:079.ChristTheLifeOfAllTheLiving

For the last few hymns, I’ve only been playing the melody part twice. On one of them I play the first and third verse but skip the second. The on the second I’ve been playing the first verse, improvise the second, then play the third.

For this hymn I tried something new, playing the first and third verse for two parts and then adding a third part where I only improvise the second verse.

It’s a little more work, but it gives me more control over the levels of the solo section as it relates to the harmony parts.

It also makes it a little easier to get in the right frame of mind for improvising.

I also had been using embedded soundcloud links to post the songs. Turns out there’s a limit to how many songs you can have for free on soundcloud. So I went back and replaced the soundcloud embeds with mp3s and the native worpress player.

Homburg, Ernst Christoph, was born in 1605, at Mihla, near Eisenach. He practised at Nauraburg, in Saxony, as Clerk of the Assizes and Counsellor. In 1648 ho was admitted a member of the Fruitbearing Society, and afterwards became a member of the Elbe Swan Order founded by Rist in 1660. He died at Naumburg, Juno 2, 1681. (Koch, iii. 388, 392; Allegemeine Deutsche Biographie, xiii. 43, 44.)

By his contemporaries Homburg was regarded as a poet of the first rank. His earlier poems, 1638-1653, were secular, including many love and drinking songs. Domestic troubles arising from the illnesses of himself and of his wife, and other afflictions, led him to seek the Lord, and the deliverances he experienced from pestilence and from violence led him to place all his confidence on God. The collected edition of his hymns appeared in two parts at Jena and Naumburg, 1659, pt. i. as his Geistlicher Lieder, Erster Theil, with 100 hymns [engraved title, Naumburg, 1658]; and pt. ii. as the Ander Theil with 50 hymns. In the preface he speaks of them as his “Sunday labours,” and says, “I was specially induced and compelled” to their composition” by the anxious and sore domestic afflictions by which God…..has for some time laid me aside.” They are distinguished for simplicity, firm faith, and liveliness, but often lack poetic vigour and are too sombre.

This is regarded as Homburg’s most popular hymn, but it is still pretty somber.

1) Christ, the Life of all the living,
Christ the Death of death, our foe,
Who thyself for us once giving
To the darkest depths of woe,
Partiently didst yield thy breath
But to save my soul from death;
Praise and glory every be,
Blessed Jesus, unto thee.

2) Thou, O Christ, hast taken on thee
Bitter strokes, a cruel rod;
Pain and scorn were heaped upon thee,
O thou sinless Son of God,
Only thus for me to win
Rescue from the bonds of sin;
Praise and glory ever be,
Blessed Jesus, unto thee.

3) Thou didst bear the smiting only
That it might not fall on me;
Stoodest falsely charged and lonely
That I might be safe and free;
Comfortless that I might know
Comfort from boundless woe.
Praise and glory ever be,
Blessed Jesus, unto thee.

4) Then for all that wrought our pardon,
For thy sorrows deep and sore,
For thine anguish in the garden,
I will thank the evermore;
Thank thee with my latest breath
For thy sad and cruel death,
For that last and bitter cry
Praise thee evermore on high. Amen.

075b.TheRoyalBannersForwardGo

Please turn to number 75 (Second Tune) and join with the clarinets in “The Royal Banners Forward Go”.

Number: 75 (Second Tune)
First Line: The Royal Banners Forward Go
Name: PARKER.
Meter: L.M.
Music: Horatio Parker, 1863-1919
Text: Sts. 1-4, Venatius Fortunatus, 530-609
Sts. 5,6, Anonymous
Tr. Episcopal Hymnal, 1940

Clarinet Arrangement: 075b.TheRoyalBannersForwardGo

The same text set to very different music.

While this arrangement was easy to transcribe and record, I had a much harder time finding room for my second verse solo “Hymnprovisation”. There’s a lot of freedom in the simple harmonies of chant. When you start getting more chord changes in there, it becomes more complicated for improvisation.

I always think of improvisation sort of like navigating an obstacle course. With Chant, you basically have a straight track with maybe one obstacle in the middle. With modern arrangements (and jazz), it becomes a steeple chase.

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

075a.TheRoyalBannersForwardGo

Please turn to number 75 (First Tune) and join with the woodwinds in “The Royal Banners Forward Go”.

Number: 75 (First Tune)
First Line: The Royal Banners Forward Go
Name: VEXILLA REGIS PRODEUNT.
Meter: Irregular.
Tempo: Unision
Music: Plainsong Melody, Mode I
Arr. Ernest White, 1899-
Text: Sts. 1-4, Venatius Fortunatus, 530-609
Sts. 5,6, Anonymous
Tr. Episcopal Hymnal, 1940

Clarinet Arrangement: 075.TheRoyalBannersForwardGo

I have come to almost dread these Edmund White arrangements of Medieval chant.

First, they’re a pain to transcribe. There is inevitably some mis-match between the beats in the different parts, which forces me to use my own judgement.

Second, the hymns, as written, have no measures. So, the “meter” such that it exists I can only divine based upon the length of the musical phrases, rather than actual written measures. In this case, it means I have to divy it up several different meters. It starts in 6/8. Moves to 5/8 for a measure. Then goes to 7/8 for a few. Has a measure of 8/8. Then two of 6/8. One measure of 5/8. And it finishes in 7/8. It’s almost as bad as a Rush song.

Anyway, all that counting is tough, especially at the relatively slow pace of a medieval chant. It’s one thing to mis half a beat when you’re cruising along with a ton of little notes, but when your travelling at 72bpm, it just sounds sloppy. It’s kind of a zen mode where you have to count very slowly and carefully.

Anyway, usually what happens is there is usually a short motif which all the parts perform in unison, which sort of provides the framework upon which these pieces hang. In this case, it is two quarter notes at the end of each phrase.

So, they take a lot of work, compared to more modern (Ha!) hymns in the book, and several days to get myself into the proper frame of mind to be able to perform all 4 parts accurately 3 times through.

But, I do really enjoy them, once I get in the mind set.

I did a bit of “Hymnprovisation” on the second time through, and am pretty pleased with how it turned out.

This is the first hymn of the section in celebration of Holy Week, the days between Palm Sunday and Good Friday.

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal

074.AllGloryLaudAndHonor

Please turn to number 74 and join with the clarinets in “All Glory, Laud, and Honor”.

Number: 074
First Line: All Glory, Laud, and Honor
Name: ST. THEODULPH (VALET WILL ICH DIR GEBEN).
Meter: 7 6, 7 6. D.
Tempo: Vigorously
Music: Melchior Teschner, 1585-1635
Text: Theodulph of Orleans, cir 760-821
Tr. John Mason Neale, 1818-66

74.AllGloryLaudAndHonor

All parts doubled, three times through, Hymnprovisation on the second chorus, refrain at the end.

Theodulph of Orleans seems like an OK guy.

Theodulf of Orléans (c. 750(/60) – 18 December 821) was a writer, poet and the Bishop of Orléans (c. 798 to 818) during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. He was a key member of the Carolingian Renaissance and an important figure during the many reforms of the church under Charlemagne, as well as almost certainly the author of the Libri Carolini, “much the fullest statement of the Western attitude to representational art that has been left to us by the Middle Ages”.[1] He is mainly remembered for this and the survival of the private oratory or chapel made for his villa at Germigny-des-Prés, with a mosaic probably from about 806.[2]

Theodulf brought fresh ideas and an open mind to the period known as the Carolingian Renaissance. He believed in always keeping the door open and never refusing pilgrims, travelers or the poor if they needed a meal or a place to stay for the night. He believed that you had to offer the less fortunate a seat at your dinner table if you one day wished to have a seat at the banquet of God. These ideas were highly influenced by his readings of Augustine.[17] He often referred to himself as the poor traveler or stranger, being born in Spain and of Visigothic descent, and being accepted with open arms by the royal court of Charlemagne.[4]

Though, as usual, he fell afoul of Monarchs, in this case the French variety, was exiled to a monastery at Angers, and died attempting to return to Orleans.

Interestingly, the tune, “Valet will ich dir geben“, written by Melchior Teschner, is a “Hymn for the Dying”.

“”Valet will ich dir geben” (“I want to bid you farewell”[1] or I shall say farewell to thee[2]) is a Lutheran hymn, written by Valerius Herberger in 1613 with a melody by Melchior Teschner. A Sterbelied (hymn for the dying), it is part of the current German hymnal.”

By the way, at Hymn 74, this is the last of the three tunes for Palm Sunday, but, more importantly, about the half way point for the hymns specifically dedicated to occasions of the Church Year. Woo!

Red Service Book and Hymnal
Red Service Book and Hymnal